research

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INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT

 

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FIELD STUDIES

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lab studies

 

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method & theory development

 

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Particle Source Profiling and Apportionment

In the laboratory we produce sources of primary aerosol (direct emission) and secondary aerosol (formed from gas-to-particle conversion) using the emissions/combustion chamber and PAM photochemical reaction chamber, and detect those emissions using our high frequency measurement techniques (e.g., TAG-AMS, VAPS, PTRMS, MC-TDMA, optical measurements, etc.) (see INSTRUMENTATION page). Many primary chemical source profiles have been developed for common particle emission sources (e.g., vehicle exhaust, biomass burning). We intend to extend upon those chemical profiles and include many new source types, as well as develop secondary aerosol source profiles. These new chemical profiles will be used to identify the major contributing sources of ambient particulate matter (where our main focus is on the organic fraction) for both indoor and outdoor environments.

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Biomass and Solid Fuel Combustion

We are working to understand the chemical composition of primary and secondary aerosol from biomass burning (over a range of biomass fuel types) to characterize wildfire emissions, cookstove emissions, and various scales of power production utilizing biomass and solid fuels. Here we utilize our emissions/combustion chamber and PAM photoreactor to produce primary and secondary biomass burning aerosol and detect those emissions using our novel instrumentation.

INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT

We are currently developing the TAG-AMS and VAPS systems in collaboration with Aerodyne Research Inc. and Aerosol Dynamics Inc. TAG-AMS development includes laboratory and field testing as well as software development (mostly for post data acquisition processing and analysis). VAPS development includes material testing to maximize mass transfer, integrated system development, and software development. A new version of the TAG system is under development to improve quantification of gas and particle fraction of semi-volatile organic molecules. Additionally, a mid-cost field-deployable multi-column GC/MS instrument is under development for fast monitoring of VOCs.

We have recently created a multi-channel tandem differential mobility analyzer (MC-TDMA) to provide particle size distributions, hygroscopicity, vapor pressures, enthalpy of vaporization, surface tension, and more.

All systems mentioned here are undergoing extensive laboratory and field testing. You can read more about these instruments under the INSTRUMENTATION tab on our website. 

Indoor and Outdoor Field Studies

We have performed a wide array of indoor and outdoor field studies to better understand the chemical composition, transport, transformation, and fate of pollutants in indoor and outdoor environments. Some examples of recent field projects are listed below.

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Georgia Tech Lab and Field Studies (Summer/Fall 2017)

Photo by Ben Sumlin

Photo by Ben Sumlin

Tyson Research Center Controlled Fires

(Winter/Spring 2017)

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Lab Fire Studies

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=arV4-vi0gdo&feature=youtu.be

 

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Air Composition and Reactivity from Outdoor aNd Indoor Mixing (ACRONIM) Studies

(2016, 2018)

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St. Louis Air Quality Regional Study (SLAQRS)

(2013)

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Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS)

(2013)

 

 

Current Funded Projects

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Addressing the instrumentation needs of the Chemistry of Indoor Environments program through the customization and application of a novel chemically-resolved volatility and polarity separator for improved understanding of indoor air chemistry

w/ G. Morrison (UNC), D. Millet (UMN), N. Kreisberg (Aerosol Dynamics Inc.)

Project Period: 07/01/18 - 06/30/20

Role:  Principal Investigator (PI)


National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Superfund Research Center: Environmental Exposure and Cardiometabolic Disease

w/ S. Srivastava (U.Louisville, Medicine) et al.

Project Period: 4/1/18 – 3/31/21

Role: Subaward Co-PI


National Science Foundation (NSF)

CAREER: Laboratory Studies on the Chemical Characterization of Atmospheric Emission Sources and their Oxidative Evolution using Novel Instrumentation

Project Period: 2/1/2016 – 1/31/2021

Role: PI


International Center for Energy, Environment, and Sustainability (InCEES)

Investigating the Air Quality of Haiti and Possible Linkages Between Nutrition, Air Pollutant Exposure, and Anemia in Haitian School-Aged Children

w/ L. Iannotti, J. Steensma (WUStL, Public Health and School of Social Work), J. Turner (WUStL, EECE), E. Cross (Aerodyne Research Inc.)

Project Period: 2017 – 2019

Role: PI


Provost’s Interdisciplinary Teaching Grant Award

Earth’s Future: Causes and Consequences of Global Climate Change

w/ T.R. Kidder (Chair of WashU Department of Anthropology)

2015-2016

 

Current Projects without specific funding source

 

Chemical composition of electronic cigarette liquids and aerosols

w/ Walton Sumner (WashU, School of Medicine)

2011-current

 

Chemical composition of pyrolysis and lignin-based biofuels

w/ Marcus Foston (WashU, Dept. of Energy, Environmental, & Chemical Engineering)

2014-current

 

Chemical composition of aerosols from the combustion of various solid fuels in cookstoves

w/ Pratim Biswas, Anna Leavey, Sameer Patel (WashU, Dept. of Energy, Environmental, & Chemical Engineering)

2014-current

 

Chemical composition of ambient particulate matter in New Delhi, India

w/ Suresh Tiwari (Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology)

2015-current

 

Previous Funded Projects


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Indoor exposure to pollutants associated with oxidative chemistry: field studies and window‐opening behavior

w/ G. Morrison, Nuran Ercal, Prem Lobo (Missouri Univ. of Sci. & Technol)

2014-2017

 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Intensive Optical Properties of Brown Carbon Aerosols for Satellite Retrievals and Climate Models

w/ R. Chakrabarty (WashU, EECE), W.M. Hao (USDA-Forest Service), B. Cairns, M. Chin, O. Kalashnikova, R. Levy, M. Mishchenko (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

2/15/2015-2/14/2018

 

National Science Foundation (NSF)

MRI: Acquisition of a High Resolution Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) for Research in Land And Atmospheric Science

w/ D. Millet, B. Toner, K. Yoo, K. Spokas (U.Minnesota, Dept. of Soil, Water, & Climate)

2014

 

National Science Foundation (NSF)

Primary Emissions and Atmospheric Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Coal Combustion and Coal-Biomass Cofiring.

w/ P. Biswas (WashU, Chair of Dept. of Energy, Environ. & Chem. Engineering)

2014-2017

 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Novel Measurements of Volatility- and Polarity-Separated Organic Aerosol Composition and Associated Hygroscopicity to Investigate the Influence of Mixed Anthropogenic-Biogenic Emissions on Atmospheric Aging Processes. (Early Career)

4/01/2013 - 3/31/2016

 

National Science Foundation (NSF)

Atmospheric Fullerene Chemistry: Elucidating Oxidative Pathways and Characterization of Corresponding Derivatives

w/ J. Fortner (WashU, Dept. of Energy, Environ. & Chem. Engineering)

2/01/2013 – 1/31/2016

 

Department of Energy (DOE) SBIR Phase II

Volatility and Polarity Separated Total Organic Aerosol using Thermal Desorption Modulated Chromatography

w/ Aerodyne Research Inc., Aerosol Dynamics Inc., J. Jimenez (UC-Boulder)

9/01/2012 - 8/31/2015

 

International Center for Advanced Renewable Energy & Sustainability (ICARES)

Atmospheric Photochemistry and the Hydrological Fate of Black Carbon Soot Particles

w/ J. Fortner and B. Kumfer (WashU, Dept. of Energy, Environ. & Chem. Engineering), S. Hayes (WashU, Dept. of Chemistry)

5/01/2014 – 4/30/2015

 

Department of Energy (DOE) SBIR Phase I

Volatility and Polarity Separated Total Organic Aerosol using Thermal Desorption Modulated Chromatography

w/ Aerodyne Research Inc.

9/01/2011 - 8/31/2012

 

Department of Energy (DOE) SBIR Phase II

Volatility-Resolved Measurements of Total Gas-Phase Organic Compounds by High-Resolution Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry

w/ Aerodyne Research Inc., J. Kroll (MIT)

10/01/2010 - 9/30/2012

 

WUStL Sustainable LandLab Competition

Sunflower+Project: StL

w/ Don Koster et al. (WashU, School of Design & Visual Arts)

2013

 

McDonnell Academy Global Energy and Environmental Partnership (MAGEEP)

Biomass-Derived Particles in Engineered Systems and the Environment of India

w/ P.Biswas and J. Turner (WashU, Dept. of Energy, Environ. & Chem. Engineering), G. Yadama (WashU, School of Social Work), V. Sethi (IIT-Bombay)

12/15/2011-9/14/2014

 

International Center for Advanced Renewable Energy & Sustainability (ICARES)

Chemical Composition of Biomass Combustion Aerosol:  Direct Emissions and Atmospheric Processing

w/ P. Biswas (WashU, Chair of Dept. of Energy, Environ. & Chem. Engineering)

9/01/2011 - 8/31/2012